10 Essential Public Health Services


Create, champion, and implement policies, plans, and laws that impact health

Public Health is responsible for creating, championing, and implementing policies, plans, and programs that improve health. This involves designing, developing, researching, and rolling out tactics. Policies, plans, and programs are Public Health’s tools for making real-world change. Through implementation, Public Health and its partners enact changes that help to shift vital community conditions and impact health.

Equity & Systems

Implementation must ensure equitable access to and benefits from policies, laws, and programs. In designing, supporting, and implementing policies, Public Health should operationalize equity by:

  • Co-designing with the community
  • Centering the health needs of the most vulnerable communities
  • Incorporating evidence-based approaches to reduce inequities
  • Considering unintended consequences of interventions on priority populations

Public Health in Action

Public health departments use Community Health Improvement Plans to articulate their long-term, systematic effort to address public health problems in a community. Tactics put forth in CHIPs are implemented in collaboration by Public Health and other relevant partners over time.


    Promote health, well-being and equity in all policies, plans, and programs

    Prioritize policies, plans, and programs that are multisolving

    Co-design with and tailor implementation strategies to specific communities and priority populations

    Reflection Questions

    • How can CHIPs guide and support Public Health implementation strategies and tactics?
    • How can Public Health advance equity as part of implementation activities?
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